We've tested 14 major project management software providers, and we found that ClickUp has the best free plan, thanks to a fantastic collection of features, useful customer support options, a range of customization options, and importantly, no limit on how many users can partake in your project.
Without spending a cent on ClickUp's free plan, you'll be able to manage workflows with pre-built and custom automations, access a full suite of task management features and take your pick from custom and preset templates, and visualize all your data in charts and widgets. To top it all off, ClickUp's customer support provision is much broader than other competitors.
In this guide, you'll find:
The Best Free Project Management Software
It's fair to say that not every business has the budget to fork out on expensive software, even if it was certain to make working practices more efficient and assure the delivery of successful projects.
The good news is that a lot of the top project management software providers now offer free plans that are actually worth using. They include the vast majority of features available on their paid plans, often with some minor limitations on user, project, and/or storage limits. Below is a quick summary of the providers, but scroll down for more in-depth looks at all of them:
ClickUp (Free Plan)
monday (Free Plan)
Wrike (Free Plan)
Jira (free plan)
Asana (Free Plan)
Zoho Projects (Free Plan)
All-round free plan
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About Our Research
Here at Tech.co, if we're writing about a product, service, or software program, it means we've used and tested it. We have a team of full-time employees who dedicate their time to finding out everything we need to know to write comprehensive, objective reviews.
There are loads of websites out there that claim they've used the products they're reviewing – as well as providers claiming their software or service is the best. We try to cut through that noise with our research, providing accurate test results based on real experiences with the software and services in question.
Jump to the section of this article that explains how we chose the best free project management software for a detailed rundown of the criteria and factors that helped us to decide which ones ruled the roost.
Free plan is best for: All-round free plan
Paid pricing from: $5 per user, per month
ClickUp's incredible free plan came out on top in the battle of the free plans for a number of reasons. For one, there's no user limit, so it's suitable for teams of all sizes. ClickUp's ‘List View' was highlighted by our research team as a particularly easy way to edit tasks (requiring just a click of the mouse), and all the essentials you need for project management were included at no cost.
- Genuinely impressive free plan
- Highly customizable, with great automation builder
- Multiple ways to view project progress and data
- cheaper than a lot of competitors
- 24/7 live support
- Better for small teams, less enterprise-level features
- Customizability can be overwhelming to new users
- Not particularly suited to compiling project feedback
ClickUp: free plan features and testing
There's a reason ClickUp's free plan – called the Free Forever: tops our list. It has all the task management features you could possibly need, some preset data visualization tools, and 24/7 live support. The downside is that there's a 5 project limit, but you could create another free account with a different email address.
A couple of features have usage limits on ClickUp's free plan, but this is the provider's way of including them on the free plan where others may not. Gantt Charts, Custom Fields, and Resource management tools are limited to 100 uses, whereas Milestones can only be used 10 times. Other tools – like a time-tracking function – are included on this free plan, but not on competitors.
But this is better than monday.com, for instance, which doesn't have Gantt charts or Milestones on its free plan at all, and Jira, Wrike, and Zoho don't have any resource management capabilities on their free plans.
Setting up with ClickUp is a straightforward and simple process. Accessing the tools and functions you need within the program is pretty intuitive, and doesn't require any menu-diving. All in all, ClickUp was a joy to use and scored 4/5 for usability, second only to monday.
Unlike providers like Teamwork, ClickUp does have an automation builder and this is available for use on the free plan, although it was reasonably tough to master. There are also not many features for post-project feedback.
Although ClickUp's free plan is pretty wonderful, its paid plans are actually better, and considering they're so well priced, they're almost always worth the upgrade. For instance, on ClickUp's first paid plan, the project limit is removed, so you can create as many projects as possible.
ClickUp pricing: paid plans
All in all, when we tested ClickUp's Paid Plans, it scored particularly highly across the board, but particularly when it came to task management, customer support, workflow creation, and data visualization. The provider has an impressive library of communication integrations and also integrates with top CRM Salesforce.
Unlimited Access: $5 per user, per month. On the Unlimited Access plan, you get a calendar thrown and you can also build ten times as many automations, which is great for any business that wants to sculpt the software to its needs.
Business: $12 per user, per month. This plan has advanced automations, granular time estimates, goal folders, custom reports that you can export, Google single sign-on, and an advanced dashboard that will let you see who's overloaded with work and who isn't.
Business Plus: $19 per user, per month. The Business Plus plan has a lot of collaboration features like team sharing, and custom role creation, and there's also a priority support option available so you'll be able to jump the queue if you get stuck.
Enterprise: The only real aspect of note in the enterprise plan is ClickUp's onboarding assistance – which bigger companies with lots of team members working on projects would benefit from.
Free plan is best for: Customizability
Paid pricing from: $9 per user, per month
If you've heard of project management before, you've more than likely heard of monday.com. It's one of the most widely used programs for managing projects, and is notoriously easy to use and highly functional.
- Highly customizable platform
- A bit more affordable compared to other services
- Automation features save loads of time
- Missing more common project management features
- Limited third party integrations
- Higher tiers required for basic features
monday.com: free plan features and testing
With Kanban Boards, Gantt Charts and custom project templates, monday.com's free plan has plenty of task management features. It also useful collaboration features like a whiteboard, which isn't on a lot of free or paid plans in the project management world, and a form builder which is useful for compiling post-project feedback.
On top of this, its free plan has an impressive number of preset charts and widgets and you can make your own custom widgets too. There's also a dashboard function so you can keep track of everything.
For ease, monday.com uses a system called ‘Items' which are customizable rows and columns which can be used to input task information. This makes setting up a real breeze and means you can effectively add as much or as little detail as you want. monday.com scored 4.3/5 for usability on our last round of testing, making it the easiest-to-use project management software we tested.
However, on its free plan, there's a user limit of just two – perhaps the biggest downside – and only 500MB of storage. The other thing it's worth knowing is that the free plan only lets you track tasks, rather than create projects.
Although monday's free plan has a wealth of useful tools, a lot of the provider's best features, like Gantt charts, automations, and task dependencies, are only available on monday's paid plans.
monday.com paid plans pricing
In our latest round of project management software testing, monday.com scored particularly highly in its paid plans when it came to usability, collaboration, data visualization, and of course, is the king of customizability. Dedicated resource management charts make reallocating workloads very simple, and users have inboxes that store communications with other team members.
Basic: $9 per user, per month. monday.com removes its user limit from this plan and increases storage to 5GB. Feature-wise, however, there's actually not a whole lot of difference between this plan and monday's free offering, aside from the fact you can actually create projects.
Standard: $12 per user, per month. This is the first plan monday.com offers with pre-built and custom automations. It includes everything available in the Basic plan, but some handy extra features like Guest Access. Importantly, this is the first plan with a Gantt chart, so if you're looking for Gantt Chart Software, this is the plan for you.
Pro: $20 per user, per month. On this plan, you can create more actions and with the Formula Column feature, you'll be able to manage budgets and build custom charts. Along with the rest of the task management features Monday offers, you'll be able to draw dependencies between tasks, which is super useful for planning.
Enterprise: Bespoke Pricing. The Enterprise plan is, naturally, aimed at the largest businesses and has 1000GB of storage and onboarding assistance to help with setup.
Free plan is best for: Task Management
Paid pricing from: $9.80 per user, per month
Wrike's not quite as useful as ClickUp or Monday – and its paid plans can be quite pricey – but as free plans go, it's got one of the best offerings in the business. It's great for reallocating tasks and making changes to your project's time frame, and all this can be done with minimal menu-diving.
- No-nonsense, robust feature catalog
- Lots of customizability
- Best task management features
- Not entirely easy to use
- Difficult to use automation builder
- Not the best for collaboration
Wrike: free plan overview
Wrike offers one of the only Free plans on this list that doesn't set any user or project limits. It also has a great range of features for measuring progress including Milestones, and you can make custom project templates too. If you'd prefer to use a preset project template, those are included on the free plan – and there are ones specifically designed for Agile teams.
Overall, Wrike's free plan is still one of your best bets for measuring the progress of your project, something which is enhanced by the spreadsheet-style view called ‘Table', which makes amending your project very easy, as well as a Kanban board for tracking the progress of tasks. There are few collaboration tools, but the free plan will integrate with Slack and Microsoft Teams.
There is, however, a noticeable lack of data visualization features like charts and widgets, very few collaboration features, and no custom fields. In this sense, we found Wrike quite similar to monday.com – many of the best features are reserved for paid tiers, including Wrike's automation builder and a Gantt chart that auto-populates itself when you head into the Gantt view.
Wrike's paid plans scored particularly highly when it came to task management, and data visualization, the latter being largely due to the fact that Wrike has a number of preset charts and widgets which are effective for doing so.
Wrike paid plans pricing
The Professional Plan ($9.80 per user, per month). Wrike's first paid plan has preset and custom widgets for data visualization as well as task commenting and dependency functions. There's a Gantt Chart on this plan, but oddly, despite the free plan being unlimited, there's a 200-user limit on both the Professional Plan and the Business Plan.
The Business Plan ($24.80 per user, per month). This is one of the more fully-featured plans we tested, with a full range of task management features (including custom fields), as well as the capacity to make charts. There's a form builder for post-project feedback and a time-tracking feature too.
Wrike for Marketing Teams (Bespoke) & Wrike for Professional Services Teams (Bespoke). Wrike is one of the only providers in this space to offer industry-specific project management software packages, both of which house dedicated features.
Enterprise (Bespoke). Wrike's Enterprise package has added security provisions, including two-factor authentication. There's no user limit, however, unlike Wrike's Business and Professional plans – but aside from that, functionally it's much the same.
Pinnacle (Bespoke). Not many project management software providers include a package above Enterprise, but Wrike does – and it includes the billing and invoicing function available on the Professional Services plan that isn't included in the Enterprise plan.
Free plan is best for: Visualizing data
Paid pricing from: $7.50 per user, per month
- Large range of customer support
- Lots of helpful integrations
- Scalable pricing structure - the more users you have, the more you save
- Missing more advanced task management features
- Integrations can be confusing
- Not the best for collaborating
Jira: free plan overview
Jira's free package is quite comprehensive – you get all the customer support options bar phone and 24/7 live support, task management features galore (Gantt Charts, Kanban Boards, custom fields).
Jira is great for Agile teams who find Kanban boards the easiest way to visualize their project workflow. There are also burndown charts on the free plan, which are useful for teams using the Scrum framework to organize their operations.
Impressively on Jira's free plan, you get a full suite of data visualization functions, project templates, and pre-built as well as custom automations. What you don't get is many collaboration features.
Although Jira has all the functions you need to successfully manage a project, it does take a little bit of time to adjust than software like monday.com. “Users are likely to encounter a steep learning with Jira – it has a clean interface, but I did find myself menu-diving to complete some tasks” our chief project management researcher commented after testing.
There are of course reasons to opt for Jira's paid plans – resource management features, for instance, aren't included in the free plan. There are also some tools to facilitate post-project feedback and it performed better than Zoho Projects and Teamwork in this regard.
Jira puts no limits on projects or users on any of its plans, nor on how many programs you can integrate with Jira – and there's the obvious Confluence integration (another Atlassian product) for document editing, which is useful. There is, however, a storage limit of 2GB on the free plan and 250GB on the first paid plan (after which it is also unlimited).
Standard: $7.50 per user, per month. Jira's Standard plan is actually very similar to the free plan, aside from the storage limit being increased by 248GB, which is important if you're going to store files in your project management portal.
Premium: $14.50 per user, per month. As well as everything in the standard plan, on Jira's Premium offering you'll have unlimited storage, and all-important resource management tools. The automation limit is doubled too.
Enterprise: Bespoke. Jira only offers phone and 24/7 live support on the Enterprise plan, and there's no automation cap either. This is a truly unlimited plan ideal for large businesses that want a project management software program that can support agile working methods.
Free plan best for? Customer Support
Paid price from? $12.50 per user, per month
Teamwork can easily facilitate stressless project monitoring and seamless collaboration with team members. Unlike some project management software solutions, Teamwork has a wealth of dedicated features for things like budget management and milestones.
- A whole lot of communication options
- Kanban-style boards and Gantt charts available
- Affordable pricing and solid free option
- Limited built-in integrations
- No automation feature
- Data visualization isn't the easiest
Teamwork's free plan has a number of useful collaboration features, including a project message board, task comments and a limited resource management tool, as well as task management options like Milestones that make the package a good free offering.
Another thing to say in Teamwork's favor is that, on the free plan, there's an impressive amount of customer support options. You can contact Teamwork via the phone, email, live chat, or search their knowledge base for answers, whilst a lot of providers don't offer all these avenues.
However, Teamwork's free plan doesn't really have many workflow creation features – including preset or custom project templates. There's also a project limit of two and a user limit of five, and no budget management feature on the free plan.
Another downside to Teamwork is that it doesn't provide an automation builder on not just its free plan, but any plans. This sets it apart from most of the competition, with automations largely commonplace across the software market. Automations are key to improving efficiency, so it's a shame that this isn't part of the free or paid packages.
Although a very commendable free plan, Teamwork's paid plans have a lot more features. In our latest round of project management software testing, Teamwork's paid plans scored particularly highly when it came to task management, usability, and collaboration, so they're really worth a look.
Teamwork paid plans pricing
Deliver: $12.50 per user, per month. Teamwork's Deliver plan has a team instant messenger, preset project templates, and a spreadsheet-type view for the excel lovers out there. There's a big increase to 300 projects and no limit to how many users can be involved with them. Other highlights include Slack and MS Team integrations and guest access.
Grow: $22.50 per user, per month. This package is the first teamwork plan with budget management features – a crucial aspect of most projects – and custom fields, one of the more useful functions found in project management software. The project limit is doubled to 600 but there's no limit to how many users can be involved. There's also 250GB of storage on this plan, great for data-heavy projects.
Scale: Bespoke. This is the only plan teamwork offers that puts no limit on the number of projects you can make and also provides onboarding assistance, so would be best suited to large businesses that need a limitless program.
Best for: Post-project feedback
Paid pricing from: $10.99 per user, per month
Asana is a popular project management program with over 1.3 million paid users across the globe. It can cater to businesses of all sizes, and its free plan will suit smaller teams managing lots of projects.
- Free trial available
- Plenty of third party integrations
- Incredible clean and intuitive interface
- Free options available
- Most key features require Premium plan
- High prices for larger teams
- Customer support options could be better
Asana: free plan overview
Asana's free plan has a few task management features, including a Kanban board and a spreadsheet-style view, and there's a basic level of customer support (email/knowledge base/forum), and collaboration features like a calendar, message board, and instant messenger.
One upside to Asana's free plan is that there's no project limit on the free plan like the one enforced on ClickUp's, and you can create your own project templates or choose from preset options. One big downside is that it's severely lacking in data visualization features, and you'll have to upgrade if you want to build automations.
Asana is an easy-to-set-up piece of software with a tidy and unintimidating interface. SEO Campaign Executive Katie liked the way it was laid out.
“You can add multiple teams and multiple projects for each person,” she said. “and you can even add tasks to multiple projects. We also have an ‘individual tasks' project with a subheading for each team member and then also sub-category focus project with different stages the projects are in.”
Bear in mind, however, that in a world of easy-to-use project management software, this isn't uncommon, and Asana only scored 3.9/5 for usability, meaning it was less easy to master than monday.com.
The free plan is, however, quite limited – especially considering Asana ranked the third-best for features and joint first for data visualization. There task management features like milestones and task dependencies are not available on Asana's free plan, nor are any tools (like charts and widgets) for visualizing data.
Asana's paid plans really stand out in the post-project feedback stage which, on the whole, most project management software programs don't do an incredible job of. Asana has a simple form builder that's pretty easy to use and interactive sessions are possible via a customizable Kanban. There's also a handover feature and guests can be added to view the project.
Premium ($10.99 per user, per month). Asana's first paid plan introduces a wealth of custom and preset charts and widgets for showcasing important information, and there are plenty more task management features, as well as pre-built automations. Whilst the free plan has a 15-user cap, Asana's Premium plan is unlimited.
Business ($24.99 per user, per month). This plan is quite similar to the Premium plan in terms of features, although you will get the opportunity to build custom automations and there's a handy resource management tool included that isn't present in the previous plan.
Enterprise (Bespoke). Again, although feature-wise, the Enterprise plan is pretty similar to the Business Plan – in fact, they're practically identical on this front. Asana's Enterprise plan does, however, offer advanced security features including an Audit log API, data deletion, and encryption capabilities.
Free plan best for: Collaboration
Paid pricing from: $5 per user, per month
Zoho continues to make a name for itself with highly functional business products that won't break your bank. Zoho Projects is no different, and the free version is certainly good when it comes to managing tasks.
- Free trial
- Flat fee payment structure
- Easy to use interface for everyone
- Built-in time tracking and gamification
- Pretty expensive for medium to large companies
- Gamification tools can be spotty
- Third party integrations exclusive to high tiers
Zoho: free plan overview
Zoho wasn't the most straightforward software to set up, despite having a variety of dedicated features for budgeting, milestones, tasks, and more. It has all the basic features you need to run a project successfully, even on the free plan, but our researchers found them slightly harder to find than competing software.
Zoho does do well when it comes to collaboration and on the free plan that comes in handy, especially if you're part of a project team that likes to communicate throughout the day. Zoho Projects will equip you with a calendar and an instant messaging app, you'll be able to make comments on tasks, and there's also a central project message board.
One other downside to Zoho is the free plan is quite limited, in the sense you can only create two projects simultaneously and there's a user limit of just three – providers like ClickUp, for example, don't put any limits on the number of projects you can create through one account. If you want more freedom in that regard, check out the paid plans listed below the image.
- Free: $0. Zoho's free version of its Projects software comes with the same support options as its other paid plans, and there's a large range of task management tools when compared to other competitors' free offerings. Collaboration features can be found in abundance, but there's a project limit of two and a user limit of three though.
- Premium: $5 per user, per month. Zoho's first paid plan allows you to create sub-tasks on top of the task management features in the free plan, there are dedicated budget management tools and you can create custom templates and automations. The user limit is upped to 50 too, so suitable for a larger range of businesses.
- Enterprise: $10 per user, per month. This plan is geared towards larger businesses so subsequently has no user limit. There's more storage, no project limit and you can create custom fields for different aspects of your project, which you can't do on the premium plan.
How to Choose the Right Free Project Management Software
The size of your business
The size of your business will be a big factor in choosing the right free project management software, as businesses with different numbers of employees will naturally have different priorities.
if you're working in a very small business and looking for free project management software, you're going to have the most options and be able to focus on features providers offer, as you won't have to worry about as much about user limits.
For instance, if your business (or team within your business) contains less than 15 employees, Asana will be a really serious option because it offers a free plan with a user limit of 15 but set no limits on how many projects you can actually create. If your business is just a duo, then monday.com becomes the most attractive option because it's more feature-rich than most but has a user limit of just two.
Smaller businesses are unlikely to need as many collaborative tools as larger businesses as well, because there will be a) less editing and changes being made and b) they'll be easier to keep track of. So, if your business or project team is small, choose a project management software tool with more limited collaboration functions on its free plan that excels in other areas, like Wrike's free plan, which is great for managing tasks and also will allow you to create custom project templates.
If you're operating a medium-sized business, then you're definitely going to need collaboration tools, particularly if you're not already using a business comms platform like Slack. Teamwork has some of the best collaboration tools in the game, as do Basecamp.
Another consideration – particularly if your project is very data-intensive, or you're processing things like customer information or utilizing research documents – is storage limits. Some providers offer unlimited storage on all of their paid plans (like ClickUp), whereas others set very tight limits on how much storage space you have – even Wrike's top tier, Pinnacle, only offers 15GB of storage.
For many medium-sized businesses that need to convey information about project progress to large groups or teams, data visualization tools will play an important role – so whether you have the capacity to create charts and widgets with a given project management tool may be a decisive factor, especially if there's no other software you're currently using to do this.
This, however, alludes to another point medium and large businesses will likely have to consider more than, say, small businesses – what software they're already using and, in turn, what integrations are offered by project management software tools.
Large Businesses are likely to share may of the priorities of medium-sized businesses in the context of project management software, but there are a couple of things that may have an outsized importance to enterprise-level companies. One key one would be security features, particularly in the context of the sharp rise in data breaches and ransomware attacks that have taken place since the pandemic.
Whether a provider has individual security features like two-factor authenticaiton will be important, but Enterprise-grade security features like granular audit logs and user permissions will also be of primary concern.
Another way to choose software is simply by budget – and this makes a lot of sense too. No matter how good a program may be, if your business simply can't afford it, there's not much point in considering it.
However, another interlocking consideration will be your expansion plans for the next few years. If your budget is stretched now despite healthy growth, and you're planning to have a much bigger business (and larger teams working on projects), selecting a provider with a great free plan like ClickUp that also has more advanced offerings for further down the line could be a better move than having to switch project management software provider in a year or two.
Teams with small budgets may first look to free plans – after all, if you can get away without spending anything, then why not? Although this industry is full of comprehensive and extremely useful free plans with tonnes of features, many providers put very tight user limits on those free plans. For instance, monday.com will only let a maximum of two people use its free plan, Zoho just three.
Another thing to consider is what you're actually getting for that price – not all project management software offers the same features and there's quite a range in that regard. It might be worth paying a little more for a provider that has a lot more features than saving a tiny bit of cash but ending up stuck with a less-than-functional provider.
If you're well on board with the core premise behind the development of project management software – that it can save time, increase efficiency and generally improve the health of your projects – and have put money aside to invest in such software, then we'd advise focusing on features first and foremost.
Quite a few providers leave useful features tucked away in their most expensive (typically “Enterprise”) or second-most expensive plans. ClickUp, Teamwork, and monday.com all have excellent plans available for around the $20 per user, per month mark, whereas Asana is slightly more expensive.
Some providers – such as Trello – decrease their per-user price the more you add. So if you work for a large business and your team is considering getting project management software, it might be worth coordinating with other departments to see if you can use your large budget to get the best deal on an enterprise-grade piece of kit.
How We Chose the Best Free Project Management Software
Our insights team has conducted extensive testing on 14 different project management software tools using a professional research framework. The process is repeated every few months to ensure the information is as up-to-date as possible, along with various smaller updates on a more regular basis. Our team has scored the software providers on several different criteria, including:
- Usability – how easy the product is to use
- Pricing – how many features you'll get for a base cost price, and whether the plans are good value for money in general.
- Customer support – how many different ways to contact the customer service team there are, and how they function
- Task management capabilities – how good the software is at managing tasks
- Project & workflow creation – how well the software facilitates the creation of team members' workflows
- Data visualization – what tools the software gives users to display figures and stats
- Collaboration functions – how easy it is to communicate with your team inside the software
- Customer scores – how customers who've bought these products have rated them
Here's a closer look at some of those factors – and why they're important to you as a customer – below.
Pricing factors (even with free plans)
Obviously, pricing factors are less important when comparing free plans – features take priority when there's no pricing difference between them. However, depending on your business's plans for the next year or so, you may want to check out a provider's paid plans as well, even if you're only going to use the free plan at the moment.
For example, If you choose a project management software tool like monday.com, for example, you'll be restricted to just two users on the free plan. If your goal is to expand to more than two employees, you'll quickly outgrow it – but if monday's paid plans aren't right for your business, then you'll have to make an arduous switch from monday to another software that you aren't used to. So, it's always worth looking at a provider's paid plans, too.
Customer support is an important aspect of project management software to consider – especially if you're looking for free plans. Not all project management software providers offer their full range of support options on their free plans, whereas others afford you access to them as soon as they stand up.
How important customer support will be to you may depend on your technical savviness and how confident you are solving such issues yourself. But more importantly, it'll depend on how much of a standstill you'll be brought to if you can't get your program working.
There's no point in investing in software if it's just going to be a pain to use, and that remains the case even if you're not paying for it. Some software will be easier to use depending on the type of business you operate, as some software is geared to specific industries and use cases.
Our insights team has arrived at usability scores for all the providers we review in this category of software. They recorded how easy it was to find features, the speed of setup, and a variety of other factors to find out which program would help you get the ball rolling the quickest.
If you're looking for a free project management tool, features are vitally important. As some free plans can be quite limited in order to encourage people to sign up for paid plans, there is quite a broad difference between what some providers offer.
Our team assesses and identifies the task management, workflow creation, and data visualization (as well as many more) features offered by each provider, as well as how well they work to fulfill the functions they say they do.
Verdict: ClickUp has the best free project management plan
There's not really any area ClickUp's free plan falls down in – there are data visualization tools, a huge range of task management and workflow creation options. The customer support options on ClickUp's free plan are more numerous than most competitors, and it has security features to keep your data safe too.
However, dedicated software is always better than trying to shoehorn your project into a program that just isn't designed for modern-day management of projects. Plus, it's no match for ClickUp's free plan, or any of the other providers on the list for that matter.
Project management software, to put it simply, just does more – and because there are so many free plans, there's not really a downside. Plus, many even offer a spreadsheet-style view (like Teamwork) or are spreadsheet based (like Smartsheet).